Archive by Author | Abubakar Lawan Abubakar



Youth dishonest tendency or Juvenile delinquency in another word is seen as one of the menace that destroys life and property in our society today. Because of the nature of crime committed by juvenile, the parents, guidance, sponsors and well wishers are worried and disturbed about our future leaders. Crime associated with juvenile include: rape, stealing, shoplifting, kleptomanias, burglary, disobedience, homicide, truancy, vandalization and robbery etc.


Juvenile delinquency is that behaviour on the part of children which may, under the law, subject those children to juvenile court. Tappan (1972) assert that “the nature of juvenile delinquency sprang up from different abnormal behaviour such as stealing or shoplifting, drunkenness, burglary, robbery, rape, homicide, idleness, truancy, prostitution, disobedience, running away from home, kleptomanism and sexual promiscuity. Furthermore, it is nothing but a fact to say that juvenile offenders who after serving a good or complete numbers of his or her punishment in prison and still continue in deviance is because they are associated with adult prisoners. In this regard Mr. Sanusi, project Director of Lawyers continued Education Project (LAWCEP) maintained that “in our society, where the process of trial is delayed unduly, the young offender spends more time with hardened criminals than elsewhere.

The Nigerian constitution of 1979 defines juvenile delinquency as “a crime committed by a young person under the age of 18 years as a result of trying to comply with the wishes of his peers or to escape from parental pressure or certain emotional stimulation’. Before a youth in Nigeria is classified a delinquent, he must have been arraigned before a juvenile court and proved to be guilty of some offences. Examples of such offences are habitual truancy, drug addiction, prostitution, stealing, cultism, armed robbery etc. The consequences that juvenile delinquency has caused to Nigerian society are not only devastating but numerous. They destroy both lives and property and they also retard the growth of this country.

Delinquency is a form of anti-social behavior whereby although it does not necessarily refer to illegal behavior, most of the time delinquent behavior does not conform to social norms and values.

Juvenile delinquency refers to delinquent and criminal behaviour among young people as they negotiate the transition from childhood to adulthood in an increasingly complex and confusing world. Although the issue of juvenile delinquency is an age long problem, it seems that the juvenile delinquency of the past cannot be compared with that of the present era. The antisocial behaviours often associated with the juvenile delinquents’ include vandalism, drug abuse, weapon carrying, alcohol abuse, rape, examination malpractices, school violence, bullying, cultism, truancy, school drop-outs, to mention but a few. Obviously, unless something is done to roll back the wave of juvenile delinquency, the prospect of a better, safer and more prosperous society emerging in Nigeria will remain elusive.

Delinquent behaviour, simply means a behaviour that youngsters do that goes against the standard of the society, regardless whether the action is legal or illegal.

World youth report (2007) said that children delinquent behaviour has been constantly heard in the news and hardly a week passes without a report in any of the National dailies of serious anti social acts which have been committed by school children. Consequently, there is often an official pronouncement, which expresses anxiety about growing incidence of juvenile crimes.

A close observation of what is happening in our institutions of learning today will definitely show that delinquency, especially juvenile is a very serious obstacle to the academic progress. World youth report, (2007) said that young people who are at the risk of becoming delinquent often live in different circumstances. For instance children who for various reasons including parental alcoholism, poverty, breakdown of the family, over-crowding, abusive conditions in the home, the death of parents, orphans without the means of subsistence housing and other basic necessities are at great risk of falling into juvenile delinquency. The number of children in especially difficult circumstances is estimated to have increased from 80 million to 160 million between 2001-2006 (Ademiu, 2007).

Igbimoria (1990) viewed that juvenile offence in Nigeria do not operate in well organized gangs, but there have instances of assault and vandalism committed by small groups of juveniles. Today, other offences committed by small groups of juveniles include looting and other acts of vandalism especially when encouraged during political campaigns and sex offences.

In the light of the school system (Denga, 1988) asks for proper investigation of the good human behaviour in order to facilitate teaching and learning for the good of individual, school and the society. Generally, it is the desire of all and sundry including the ones who perform below average to excel or to be accorded accolades. Though they may not outwardly imply that, but it has been observed that deep down their hearts, they desire excellent academic performance (Obi, 2004). Inspite of this however, a cursory look at the yearly school turn out results reveals that students fail massively in internal and externally administered examinations in Akwa Ibom State and Essien Udim Local Government Area in particular.

In the period under consideration, the average failure rate is above 50%. The normal expectation is that the failure rate should be lower than the pass rate. The reverse is the case. This failure is sufficiently high to give cause for concern.

Stakeholders in the education industry such as parents, school authorities, teachers, officials of the ministry of education and the students themselves are restive and concerned at the high casualty rate of agricultural science students in public examination.

It is easy to note from the above that poor performance of students   is not linked to teacher-teacher variable alone. However, the teaching and learning process has so many other variables apart from the teachers to contend with.

The juvenile delinquency of the learner is a strong force in the learning process that has to be considered. The sphere of social behaviour (juvenile delinquency) constitutes one of the predominant factors that may impinge on students’ performance.


Statement of the Problem

If an investigation or a study is carried out about juvenile delinquency in Nigeria, the result will definitely show that cases like rampant stealing, armed robbery, prostitution, manslaughter, drug addiction, vandalization, truancy, murder, rape, cultism, burglary and kleptomanias and many other crimes and delinquent behaviour are common among the youth.

Because of the alarming rate of juvenile delinquency in our country today, governments, parents, guidance, sponsors, teachers, moralists and well meaning Nigerians have all picked interest on its adverse effects in our society. Also the increasing waves of juvenile delinquency in our country place lives, properties and future of our youth at stake. For example, in 1989, records of crime as reported by the Lagos state police command revealed that 13,782 out of 26,259 youths between the ages of thirteen (13) and twenty one (21) were responsible for crimes committed this year.

The similar report also indicated that in the same year (1989) out of 43,000 prisoners serving in various Nigerian prisons, over 23,000 of them were aged between the ages of thirteen (13) and twenty five (25) years.

1.7 Definition of Terms

Nature: This is defined as the usual way a person or an animal behaves that is part of their character.

Consequence: This simply means a result of something that has happened.

Adolescent: youths ranging in age from 13 to 17.

Juvenile: This refers to a person who has attained the age of 14 but is under 17 years. That is a young person who is not yet an adult (Oxford English Dictionary).

Delinquent: It is a person who deviates from or violated the stipulated law that guides code of conduct of a particular country or society.

Juvenile Delinquency: Andy (2004) defined it as any social deviation by a youth from the societal norms which results in his contact with law enforcement agents. It is an act committed by a young person which violated the stipulated law of that country or society.

Stealing: This means an act of taking something from a person’s shop/store, etc. without permission and without intending to return it or pay for it.

Truancy: This simply means a practice of staying away from school without permission. It is a crime to juvenile.

Shoplifting: the stealing, for personal gain, of property from retail stores. Attempted shoplifting is not included.



Causes of Juvenile Delinquency

Researches indicate that various exposures to violence within the family or outside the family are important sources of delinquencies. In other words, if violence encompasses all emotional environmental aspects of the juvenile’s life, he is more likely to engage in delinquent activities (Hagan and Foster 2001).

Factors leading to Juvenile Delinquency

There are several factors that have led to increased juvenile delinquency among the youth in Nigeria. For the purpose of this research, these factors can be either pull factors or push factors.

  1. Poverty

Poverty is the state of inability to obtain a certain minimum level of consumption of food and essentially no food items universally considered to satisfy the minimum requirements for human sustenance. Poverty is not always an absolute state but can relate more generally to a situation in which the family income is not sufficient to meet outgoing and where alternative means of meeting these outgoing needs must be found.

Poverty may be a state in which a family lives with no possessions at all and cannot afford to put food on the table. It may be a temporary situation where a family has entered into debt, for example by borrowing money it cannot afford to repay, or by acquiring goods and dedaulting on repayments.

Poverty has pushed most children to performing delinquent acts as a means of survival. Overall, the people most affected by poverty are well defined by other socio-economic categories namely, the landless, pastoralist, the handicapped, female-headed households, households headed by people without formal education, unskilled casual workers, AIDS ophans, street children and beggars. The major contributing factor to the exposure of these categories of persons is the increasing of inequality in the distribution of wealth and income, poor access to economic and social goods as well as remunerative employment, inequality in the participation in social and political process and in other life choice.

  1. Lack of access to education

In many parts of the world, children who are denied access to education (for example, because of the costs involved, geographical factors or insufficient resources) or whose experience of the neighbourhood school is negative (porr quality teaching, abusive or absent of teachers) tend to get involved in juvenile delinquency to a large extent.

Lack of education therefore creates idleness among the youth who continually engage themselves in criminal activities.

  1. Breakdown of family structure

A long history of research has further linked family dysfunction with future criminal offending, in part because parents monitor and provide nurturance to children. It is thought that the loosening of bonds among family members may result in more criminal involvement. In most cases, delinquents have been viewed as individuals who come from less-intact families often referred to as “broken homes”.

A study by Demuth and Brown (2004), demonstrates that broken homes are associated with juvenile delinquency but also that family arrangements are not just a broken home issue. Specifically, the researchers found that levels of juvenile delinquency were much higher in teenagers residing with single fathers and lowest among teenagers who were part of a two-parent household. The researchers suggest that higher levels of delinquency among children residing with their fathers were due mainly to inadequate parental involvement in a teenager’s life. Demuth and Brown drew the inference that overall, the lack of supervision and the absence of close relationships between the teenager and his parents are factors that influence delinquency. Hoffman and Johnson’s (1998) findings corroborate Demuth and Brown’s (2004), suggesting that were parental supervision and parental bonding lead to delinquency.



Nearly all cultures possess a transition phase from childhood into adulthood. As the world is changing, is this the transition into adulthood. Whereas in the past in most industrialized countries, this transition ranged from brief to almost non-existent, it is now a significant part of a person’s development. It is now known as adolescence.

In fact the popular term “teenager” was not coined until the 1950s to describe this new group of people living through adolescence. It is believed that this new, drawn-out transition from childhood into adulthood that is common in the western world has left many adolescents in a sort-of limbo where they must seek to define their identity and place in the world, and delinquency may provide a way to do that.

This is supported by the fact that crime is committed disproportionately by those aged between fifteen and twenty-five. However, contrary to popular belief it is very rare for teenagers to become spontaneously aggressive, antisocial or violent simply with the onset of adolescence unless certain variables in the child’s life are not in order.

In Nigeria today, juvenile delinquency and crime is on the increase posing threats to the safety and security of lives and properties. Under this scenario, scholars are forced question the variables responsible for this ugly trend. Among some of the variables such as the family setting, poverty and peer influence.


Since poverty appears to be the primary cause of juvenile delinquency, the government at all levels should step- up efforts to improve the economy, as a matter of urgency. This can be done by stemming the tide of unemployment, improving the remuneration of workers, improving infrastructure, creating job opportunities, and empowering the masses in various conceivable ways. This would go a long way to raise the socio-economic condition of most families thus reducing the poverty rate in the country.

The government at all levels should not only provide free basic education but also take practical steps to ensure that the education they give is truly and completely free, qualitative, and necessarily compulsory. Legislating and effecting punitive measures on education stakeholders that default will enhance success in this direction.

It is instructive for school to administrators should step-up efforts to curb every form of truancy and loitering in and around their respective schools so that students may be disciplined to stay put in schools and pay attention to their lessons.

Parents and guardians should not neglect their responsibility to provide for members of their family irrespective of whether they are related by blood or by adoption.

The family as an agent of socialization should be educated on the psychological effect of broken homes on juvenile’s behavior.

The role of juvenile justice institutions should be extended and strengthen to monitor juvenile behaviors in schools.





Niyi A. (2015), Factors responsible for juvenile Dilinquency in Nigeria: a case study of selected primary schools in Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria. School of Arts and Social Sciences, National Open University of Nigeria.



Hakika zaku yarda da ni cewa yawaitar shafuka a intanet da tallace da tallace a radiyo da yaduwar fama-famai na siyarwa wai duk da niyyar za;a baiwa mutum jari kyauta. Ko kuma ace ya kawo kudi a juya duk sati ko wata kana da kaza da kaza. Sune yanzu suke cin karansu babu babbaka, saboda gafala da mutane suke da ita sai sunyi kudi ko ta halin ka ka.

Da yawa daga cikin irin wadannan shirye-shirye ba na gaskiya ba ne, kuma suna yin kamamceceniya da na gasken. shi ya sa hukumomi da dama suke ankarar da mutane cewa a kula.


  1. idan ance ana daukar ma;aikata misali a Custome, Prison, Airforce, N-Power, da sauransu, to ka shiga shafin hukumar kai tsaye, zaka ga tallan idan baka gani ba to karya ne.
  2. idan kuma kungiya ce (NGO) ko Kamfani, to ka fara duba rijistar kamfanin ko kungiyar da RC nambar a shafin C.A.C (Coporate Affairs Commission). Idan sunan da RC nambar da suka bayar ya yi dai-dai da wanda ka gani a shafin C.A.C to na gaske ne, idan bai yi dai-dai ba, sai ka kiyaye. Za Ka iya sacin rijistar kamfani ta wannan shafin.
  3. Duk wani shirin tallafi na Gwamnati ko na NGO da ke da kulawar hukumomin Kasa da na duniya kamar World Bank, Unicef, WHO ko CBN, BOI, BOA DBN kyauta ne, babu wani abu mai kama da kudin form. Bankin Duniya shima ya barranta kansa da wani shiri da ake karbar kudin form, duba wannan:

Hakama Development Bank of Nigeria (DBN) shima yace ayi hattara;

  1. Coporate email. Yawancin wadannan yan danfara email din da suke amfani da shi baya aiki ko kuma gamagarin email ne. ina nufin akarshen sa zaka ga yana karewa da … ko… ba asalin sunan hukumar ko kungiyar ba. Ga misalan email da ba gamagari ba na hukumomin gwamnati:,,


  1. Horaswa: duk wata hukuma ta gwamnati ko mai zaman kanta idan zata baka kudi don yin kasuwanci ta na yin horaswa ko ta nemi ka rubuta bayanan kasuwancin da zaka yi (Business Plan).
  2. Lambar Waya: da yawa daga cikin irin wadannan shafuka zaka ji sunce ga lambar wayanan ka kirawo su. Ko kuma su yi maka sakon karta kwana (SMS) suce ka kirawo lambar wayar su.
  3. Ba sa gama sayar da form: Masu irin wannan shafin a ko yaushe tallan form din su suke yi, kuma babu adadin yawan mutanen da ake nema.

Allah ya ganar da mu.



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A Guidance & Counseling Student (LVT)

Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling

Faculty of Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

18th June, 2016  INTR…





A Guidance & Counseling Student (LVT)

Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling

Faculty of Education,

Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

 18th June, 2016 


Career or vocational Guidance is a very crucial aspect of the help giving service (Guidance and Counseling). This is because it is concerned with assisting people to gain awareness, acquire knowledge and be led to enjoy placement in the world of work. Knowledge of Vocational Guidance is needed by everybody particularly because of the role of work in a person’s life. For instance, it is work one does that determines a person’s social status, income, and lifestyle, choice of friends, with mental and physical well-being. Put in a clear term, vocational guidance is therefore the process of helping a person match his personal attributes and his background with suitable jobs and employment opportunities. Most adults of over 40 years of age attest to the fact that they had little or no opportunity while in school to assess their personal, self-characteristics or to plan ways by which their values and goals could be achieved in life. This unwarranted development should not only be discouraged but it should be continually prevented through a sound vocational guidance programmes properly entrenched in the school daily activities. Knowledge of the vocational guidance is very necessary because, Nigeria is presently facing:

(a) Increase in unemployment of school learners.

(b) Shortage of manpower in different sectors of the economy.

(c) Un utilization of potentials in the country.

(d) Vocational maladjustment among youths.

(e) Unending influence of parents on choice of career.

All these issues are problems, which bedevil the vocational life of Nigerians but which activities of Counsellors and teachers alike can help to prevent in the schools. In particular, proper planning and designing of activities and services will help facilitate the career development needs of the students.

It is basic that anybody found engaged in a long lasting job called career would have explanation to give on how he came about joining such a job. Some people display happiness and contentment while others regret to find themselves in the particular career either because their goal in the career cannot be accomplished or for the fact that the demands they have to meet are incongruent with their expectations and resources. Most people who are in teaching career often show regret and disappointment simply for economic reasons whereas members in the law, medical and engineering profession seems to be happier. It is however a common knowledge to find lawyers changing to the teaching or pasturing careers simply because they feel they are not comfortable with the conditions or demands of their career in law. All these point to the fact that there is a need to plan, collect and be accessible to relevant information that are needed before a decision is taken on which career to pursue in life.

What is a Career Guidance?

A career or vocational guidance was defined by American National guidance Association in 1937 as “the process of assisting the individual to choose occupation, prepare for it, and enter it upon progress on it”. This definition was letter reviewed by Super (1951b) because it was viewed that the definition places less emphasis on the psychological nature of the vocational choice. So according to Super (1951b) Vocational Guidance is “the process of helping a person to develop and accept an integrated and adequate picture of himself and of his role in the world of work, to test this concept against reality and to convert it into a reality, with satisfaction to himself and benefit to society” from this definition it is indicated that Vocational Guidance is:

  1. A facilitative process
  2. A service rendered to the individual or group of individuals to aid him or them in choosing and adjusting to an occupation.

Also Hayes and Hopson (1981) identified that traditionally Vocational Guidance or Career Guidance is “a specialist advisory service that carefully match the talents and interest of school leavers against what is known about jobs”.

Whatever definition one seems to adopt it is pertinent that any Vocational Guidance service consist of the following factors:

  • Individual has information about himself (abilities, interest, needs, ambitions etc).
  • Information about his environment, advantages and disadvantages of different careers and educational courses leading to them is given.
  • Provide him a frame of reference through which he can see himself in relation to others.
  • Provide placement service to help him implement his plans.
  • Provide follow-up service to help


Purpose of Career Guidance

The main purpose of Career guidance is to enable the individual make as much as possible a realistic choice because entering into a wrong job may have the following consequences on such individuals.

  • It may adversely affect one’s health physically. A boy who is not physically strong and takes into mechanical profession may endanger his physical health through lifting of heavy instruments. Thought in developed countries, such instruments may be lifted by machines, there may be a time one’s physical strength may be called to test in a mechanical job especially in Nigeria where machines to lift such heavy instruments are not readily available.
  • It may lead one into a company of wrong friends which may also lead to acquisition of a bad life style.
  • It may also lead to insecurity on the job. Since you don’t like the job, you don’t perform well and this may earn you a bad record in the services.
  • It may lead an individual to wrong educational planning especially during the secondary school stage.
  • Constant unhappiness in life may also result. This unhappiness leads to maladjustment vocationally thereby setting in inferiority complex. This feeling may be the main cause of abnormal behavior and vocational maladjustment.

Nature of Career Guidance

The characteristics of Career Guidance which in turn makes up the nature will be highlighted here:

  1. Vocational or Career guidance is said to be essentially a developmental process concerned with anticipating crisis and future decision-making situations. This is especially the case with the students of the new educational system.
  2. Vocational guidance is client-centered or helpee-centered. This means the helper, i.e Guidance counselor’s prime duty is to the helpee or client and not to any institutional authority like the school principals, teachers or ministry officials.
  3. Practically it is difficult to separate educational and vocational guidance because decisions of the former affect the latter and vice-versa. So both should be seen as an aid to the decision making of the other.
  4. Vocational guidance must be concerned with the total life of the individual since its unthinkable to separate one’s working life from non working life, therefore vocational guidance should not focus on work issues alone.
  5. Finally, vocational guidance should not impose values and choices on the individual. The client is only assisted and encouraged to define his own problems and make appropriate decision and take responsibility for such decisions.

Meaning of Career

Career is a lifelong activity. It is a chosen life work or an overall work one does in a given job in one’s lifetime. Career includes the different types of work you do as a teacher, the different types of positions you occupy in teaching throughout your life in teaching. If your career is teaching, you will find yourself doing other jobs like marking examination scripts, sporting activities, gardening and supervision. At other times, you occupy the position of class teacher, assistant headmaster/mistress, headmaster/mistress, NUT official, schools inspector. All these are part of teaching career.

Collection of Career Information

It is essential for the counselor or career master to gather sufficient facts, possess sound knowledge and ideas about different careers for him to be able to assist students in their career decision making process. The two major areas of importance where information is needed for career guidance are:

(a) Information about self

(b) Information about the career of interest.

Information about Self – i.e. person who wants to choose a career.

Although self-assessment is needed by an individual in areas which include:

(i) Area of his interest;

(ii) The type of person he is. Is he an introvert or extrovert, aggressive or lovely person? You need to know this.

(iii) The educational background of the person.

(iv) The performance in the school subjects. All these you need to know about the person for a good career decision making.

Information about the Career of Interest

You will gather information on career of interest by considering the following:

(1) Study of occupational information that is available in publications like:

  • Periodicals in Ministry of Employment, Labour and Productivity;
  • Magazines and books in the National Directorate of Employment (NDE);
  • Books, Periodicals and Magazines by Labour Unions/Associations/Organizations/Institutes such as Michael Imoudu Institute of Labour Studies;
  • Business and Commercial Publishers; and
  • Magazines, newspaper publications on job vacancies.

(2) Use of films, filmstrips, slides, etc. which present occupational information.

(3) Use of career exploration kits and career games.

(4) Personal visit to employers in the fields of interest.

(5) Interviewing workers in occupations.

(6) Securing part-time or long vacation jobs in occupations of interest. Scanning newspapers and magazines for information on occupations.

Dissemination of Career Information

As a counselor or career master, you should be able to make available, present, interpret and explain all the facts, ideas and other data already collected about occupations to the students. This can be done by considering the following:

  1. Establishment of career resource material center where career materials are carefully organized and made available.

The Centre should be composed of:

  • Occupational descriptions;
  • Occupational outlook projections;
  • Post-secondary educational and training information;
  • Apprenticeship and internship information;
  • Information for special populations, and
  • Financial aid information.
  1. Lending to students, all career related materials.
  2. Organization of career days, field trips, parent conferences, career club, work study/tour, work experiences and library.
  3. Counseling interview (individual or group) through the use of audio-visual, tape recorders, overhead projectors, flannel graph and magnetic board, bulletin board, films and filmstrips, periodic announcements and career education.
  4. Guidance on choice of appropriate subject combination that is congruent with choice of particular career of interest.
  5. Provide specific information about each occupation with reference to:
  • Definition;
  • Work performed;
  • Personal requirements; and
  • Training opportunities and entry requirements.

Career Planning

Planning is time tabling of how activities will be carried out. In planning, attention should be paid to material resources that are available for use in carrying out the plans. In a similar way, one needs to make a time-table of how he wants to get into the type of work one intends to do in the future. The planning of the type of work one wants to do in the future involves acquiring the necessary education needed and taking the type of subjects to qualify one for the job. It also involves preparing your mind towards the job. All these are part of career planning. You should consider the following points while you are engaged in the career planning exercise:

  1. Quality of education provided by the client’s parent.
  2. Peer-group influence on the client’s life.
  3. Type of school attended i.e. a student who attended a teacher training college has already been prepared to be a teacher.
  4. Subject combination i.e. a child who wants to be a medical doctor should offer subjects like physics, chemistry and biology.
  5. Prospect of employment.
  6. Prestige of the career of interest.
  7. Economic gains to be derived from a career. Most people plan for career that attract high salary while others look for retirement benefits, allowances, holidays etc.
  8. Safety – Most people prefer careers that involve limited amount of hazard so that they can live long and in good health. There are other careers that involve great deal of hazards which can suddenly terminate life like military, industrial engineering. All these are important for the counselor and student clients to consider in the process of career guidance.

 Stages in Career Planning, Collection of and Dissemination of Information

Three basic areas to be considered here are the fantasy, tentative and realistic stage.

  1. The Fantasy stage refers to the period when one is still day- dreaming about many careers that are attractive to an individual. At this stage, a person acts like a child who wants to have everything shown to him/her. Fantasy stage means that the individual wants to be a lawyer today, tomorrow it is teaching career he wants, the next day it is accounting he wants. It is actually a period of confusion for the individual.
  2. Tentative stage occurs when the individual begins to get settled down to a career that appeals to him. For example, if in a fantasy stage he has about 10 1 0 3 careers that appealed to him, at the tentative stage, he may settle down to consider seriously may be only five or six. He then begins to plan for these careers, some of them, he may drop later.
  3. The Realistic stage. At this stage, the individual is mature to make a concrete decision of the type of career he thinks is good for him. By this stage, all the factors affecting career planning as indicated earlier have been considered. The individual is now convinced that possibly going into teaching career is best for him. The choice becomes realistic because he would have considered the type of education he has, the school subjects taken and the possibility of getting quickly employed. Every individual in the process of planning, collecting and using information goes through the above mentioned stages. Any counseling interaction should be used for assisting clients, after gathering all the necessary information to enhance career decision making process.

The use of Tests in Career Guidance

There is an overwhelming number of tests which may be used in career guidance. Using a classification, which in various forms has a very long history; tests can be divided into three main categories, namely: tests of ability, of personality, and tests of attitudes and interests.

Ability tests can in turn be divided into two main sections, often called achievement tests and aptitude tests. A distinction between these two, is often difficult to sustain, but is considered to depend on the idea that achievement tests are usually of school subjects – English, Mathematics, Economics and so on and are used after a period of deliberate teaching of that subject, while aptitude tests are more abstract and aim to test thought processes and ideas which are common to and generalized from a wide range of subject and other learning. The intelligence test is the most widely known type of aptitude test. In all cases, aptitude tests are used to predict future performance of the person being tested. Tests of ability have been used very widely in all forms of guidance in schools.

Personality tests have a cheered history in careers guidance. This is probably due to the very elusive concept of personality, which is usually taken to mean the relatively constant emotional qualities of a person, his major needs and drives whether conscious or unconscious. But over and above, problems of definition, Adedipe (1986) shows that, there has been extreme difficulty in establishing a clear dependable relation between any test estimate of personality and a work setting. Perhaps the most useful type of personality test in careers guidance work is the self- report in careers.

Attitude tests in careers have been widely developed; there is a tendency for such tests to be specific to research problems rather than for general use. Super and Overstreet (1960) have used such tests in an interesting way in their study of vocationally maturity.

Interest tests on the other hand have been widely developed. In recent years, interest tests have been revised and developed in Nigeria. Tests such as Bakare’s “Vocational Interest Inventory” (VIT), Akinboye’s “Vocational Interest Data Inventory” (APDI) and Adedipe’s “Self Evaluation of Vocational Interest (SEVI) is a few examples of tests used in Nigerian schools. All of these aim at exploring the personal interests of the client, and comparing the pattern of interests with that of people in general or with patterns commonly found in occupational groups.



However, Career guidance holds out an attractive promise for the vocationally confused persons. The job market increasingly becomes tighter everybody; job hunting is quite a job even for people with employable skills. By offering job-hunting skills and vocational information to youth, guidance and counseling as an educational service plays a significance role Denga (2004).

According to Onyejiaku (2001) in career guidance should not wait until the tail end of any level of formal education. It should start in time, almost immediately a child enters school. It should not be divorced from the child’s development, rather it should constitute the integral aspect of that on-going process, and hence, it should have its rightful place in the school curriculum.

Vocational theories regarding psychological and non-psychological factors of occupational choice should form the bases of entry into any job. These theories are interpreted by the counselor to help the counselee (student) make decisions. Decision – making competency is very crucial in an individual life. (Egbule, 2009, Ekpo, 2007, Onyejiaku, 2001 Denga, 2004) posited that the vocational theories help the counselor decide what data to gather about the potential vocational environments and the importance of students (client) action, interest, values, personality, educational experience and stated aspirations.


Achebe, C. C (1986). Techniques of educational and Vocational Planning in T. Ipaye (Ed) Educational and Vocational Guidance, Concepts and Approaches. Ile – Ife: University of Ife Press. Adedipe, V.O. (1997). Counselling Practicum. Internal Publishers Limited.

Anagbogu, M. A. (2005) foundation of Guidance and counselling (3rd ed). Enugu Academic Printing Press. Collins, K.. T. (2008), key works in Education, London. Longman Group Denga, D. I. (2004) Guidance and Counselling in school and non school setting (3rd ed). Port Harcourt. Double Diamond Publications.

E.A Akinade;B.O Sokan & Osarenren. (1996), An Introduction to Guidance & Counseling: A Basic Text for Colleges and Universities. Ibadan, Oyo State. Caltop Publications (Nigeria) Limited.

Egbule, J. F. (2009) counselling theories or approaches and theories in psychology Abraka. Delta state university printing press.

Ekpo, S. S. (2007) Essential of guidance & counselling. A Fundamental Approach Lagos – John Lad Publishers Ltd. Onyejiaku, F. (2001). Careers guidance and counselling services in schools, Lagos Vita-Nasco and Company.

Fetus D. Kolo, (1992), Guidance and Counseling in Perspective. Zaria, Stevano Printing Press.

Oladele, J. O (1978) Guidance and Counselling: A fundamental Approach. Lagos. John Lad Publishers Ltd.




  4. KARFI
  10. TANAWA






  1. Ibrahim Kura MuhammadSENATOR KURA

Ibrahim Kura Mohammed was born to the family of Late Alhaji Muhammad Inuwa (Alhaji Jiyau) on May 1944 in Kura Town, Kura LGA of Kano State. He was attended Kura Central Primary School now Kura Special Primary School and was proceeded to Rumfa college Kano; and New York University in the USA where he earned a degree in Political Science in 1970.

In the second republic politics Ibrahim Kura Muhammad was contested for the House of Representative on the platform of NPN but lost to PRP candidate in person of Nasidi Garba Maqera in 1979. Also in the planned 3rd republic Kura was also contested for Kano Central Senatorial District in the platform of UNCP but also lost to Hajiya Naja’atu Bala Muhammad of DPN before the election was annulled following the death of General Sani Abacha in 1998.

As an indefatigable and focused politician, Ibrahim Kura Mohammed was also contested and won the election overwhelmingly with landslide victory as elected Senator for the Kano Central constituency of Kano State, Nigeria at the start of the Nigerian Fourth Republic, running on the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) platform.

After taking his seat in the Senate Kura was appointed to committees on Solid Minerals, Communications, State & Local Government, Federal Character and Information. He decided not to seek reelection in 2003.

After leaving office he became a Director of First Fund, a subsidiary of First Bank of Nigeria, Chairman of Spotless Apt and Director / vice chairman of Clearline International. He became chairman of Expatcare Health Services in January 2007. In late 2007 he became FCT Chairman of the campaign organisation for former Ebonyi Governor Sam Egwu, who was running for chairman of the PDP. Speaking in January 2008 he expressed confidence that Egwu would take his seat at the next party convention.

He was first Secretary in the Nigerian High Commission, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (1972–1973), Executive Secretary of the Permanent Mission of Nigeria to the United Nations (1974–1976), Director of the Nigeria Tourist Association (1978–1979) and Chairman of Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro (1979–1983).

He died aged 65 after short illness on 6 May 2009 in Abuja and was buried in Kura (His Home Town) of Kano State at Goriba cemetery, living his mother,one wife and six children (2 female and 4 male).

2. Alhaji Umar Datti Kura UMAR DATTI

Alhaji Umar Datti Kura was born in 1952 in Kura town.  His Primary Education started from 1959 to 1966 at Kura Central Primary School now Special Primary School Kura. In 1969, he went to Kano Teachers Colleges (KTC) until 1974 when he graduated as a qualified Grade II Teacher. He later proceeded to Lagos for further education where he obtained Professional Education Certificate in 1988. He also attended the Nigerian Institute of Public Administration in 1989.

His working experience includes teaching from 1966 to 1977. He was appointed Head Master of Dutse Primary School from 1977 to 1978.

After the closure of Second Republic Era, Umar Datti retired from service to Business and Politics. Upon his keen interest and commitment to politics, he was appointed as Councillor in Old Rano Local Government in 1986. And later in January 1988 becomes unopposed chairman of Rano Local Government after the Inec has disqualified his challenger in person of Alhaji Wada Lawyer Rano. It was during his leadership the struggles to create Kura Local Government intensifies. Fortunately, in 1989 the military regime of General Badamasi Babangida created twenty six (26) newly local governments area in the country, among them was Kura with the Headquarter at Kura town. This marks the end of his tenure as a chairman on December, 1989.

Following the return of Fourth Republic Politics in 1998, he joined the PDP (People Democratic Party) and becomes the staunch supporter of Engineer Rabiu Musa Kwankwaso.

In January, 2000 Umar Datti Kura was appointed to serve as the Permanent Member I of the Kano State Primary Education Board by the then Kano State Governor Engineer Rabiu Musa Kwankwaso, the position that elevates his political career especially in Kura Local Government.

He was also elected as Member National Assembly Representing Kura/Madobi/Garun-Mallam from 2003 to 2007 in the PDP (people Democratic Party) platform.

He died on………….. after re-contesting bids has failed; leave wives and several children.

  1. Alhaji Musa Dan Malam musa-dan-malam

Alhaji Musa Dan Malam was a staunch PRP stalwart born in Kura in 1947. He attended Adult Education classes and contested Kano State House of Assembly for Kura constituency and won the election under the platform of PRP.

He died on 1st September, 2003, left his 3 wives and 31 children (14 Male & 17 Female).

4. Dr. Bala Salisu Kosawa

5. Salisu Ashiru Abduljalil 

To be continue ……………………


Kura Second Republic Political Leaders 1979 – 1983

By: Abubakar Lawan Abubakar
Read More…

Reshaping Education Models

By Naveen Menon

I learned today from Alison Gopnik, professor of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, that the brain consumes 20 percent of an adult’s energy. Preschool children are “gas guzzlers” in comparison, with 66 percent of their energy spent on brain activity. This was the opening of an interesting set of discussions today at Davos around reshaping education for both K-12 schools and universities around the world.

The education industry is in the midst of a major transformation, arguably the biggest since the introduction of the printing press. New digital technologies are disrupting education, and educators, policy makers, academics, technology firms, students, and parents are all struggling to cope with the scale of change. Will universities go out of business? What will the future school look like? Is formal education even relevant today?

Despite the unknowns, there are a few things that are certainly true. One is that adopting digital can be a force for good, allowing us to revolutionize the learning process and achieve better outcomes. Another is that education’s fundamental common denominator—the special relationship between teacher and student—will be either unchanged or improved.

The world is now experimenting with new education delivery mechanisms, ranging from going fully digital to rejecting digital technologies entirely. Most institutions favor a blended learning approach in which digital technology is embedded as part of the curriculum. Experimentation can produce results quickly and demonstrate that a school is “keeping up with recent trends.” The downside is that failed experiments are possible—and would come at the expense of students.

To reshape education, we may need to better understand how children learn when the rate of learning is at its peak. There is a reason why preschoolers’ brains are so active—they’re busy learning in two distinct ways:

  1. Through exploration and play
  2. Through apprenticeship

One suggestion I heard today was to reintroduce these two learning approaches into higher education—in other words, bringing play and apprenticeship back into universities. It was argued that Cambridge and Oxford have been doing this for more than 900 years, through the tutorial system (in Cambridge this is called “supervisions”). Perhaps our oldest educational institutions really do have the answers for education’s future.

Formal education will never be irrelevant. These ancient institutions teach students how to think, which is, in my humble opinion, something that can never be replicated by technology alone.

7 Ways Highly Successful People Achieve More

Some people get more done than others — a lot more.

Sure, they work hard. And they work smart. (While “smarter, not harder” is fine, smarter and harder is way better.) But they also possess a few other qualities that make a major impact on their performance:

  1. They do the work in spite of disapproval or ridicule.

Work too hard, strive too hard, appear to be too ambitious, try to stand out from the crowd… and the average person resents you. It’s a lot easier and much more comfortable to dial it back and fit in.

Pleasing the (average-performing) crowd is something highly productive people don’t worry about. (They may think about it, but then they keep pushing on.) They hear the criticism, they take the potshots, they endure the laughter or derision or even hostility… and they keep on measuring themselves and their efforts by their own standards.

And, in the process, they achieve what they want to achieve. (Which is really all that matters.)

  1. They accept that fear is an expected element in the process.

One of my clients is an outstanding — and outstandingly successful — comic. Audiences love him. He’s crazy good.

Yet he still has panic attacks before he walks onstage. He knows he’ll melt down, sweat through his shirt, feel sick to his stomach. That’s just how he is.

So right before he goes onstage he takes a quick shower, drinks a bottle of water, jumps up and down, and does a little shadowboxing.

Sure, he’s still scared. He knows he’ll always be scared. But he accepts it as part of the process — and has developed a process to deal with it.

Anyone hoping to achieve great things gets nervous. Anyone trying to achieve great things gets scared.

Productive people aren’t braver than others; they just find the strength to keep moving forward. They realize dwelling on fear is paralyzing, but action naturally generates confidence and self-assurance.

  1. They can do their best even on their worst day.

Norman Mailer said, “Being a real writer means being able to do the work on a bad day.”

Extremely successful people don’t make excuses. They forge ahead, because they know establishing great habits takes considerable time and effort. They know how easy it is to instantly create a bad habit by giving in… even “just this one time.” (Because once you give in, it’s rarely just one time.)

  1. They see creativity as the result of effort, not inspiration.

Most people wait for an idea. Most people think creativity somehow happens. They expect a divine muse will someday show them a new way, a new approach, a new concept.

And they wait, and wait, and wait.

Occasionally, great ideas do just come to people. Mostly, though, creativity is the result of effort: toiling, striving, refining, testing, experimenting… The work itself results in inspiration.

Highly productive people don’t wait for ideas. They don’t wait for inspiration. They know that big ideas most often come from people who do, not people who simply dream.

  1. They view help as essential, not a weakness.

Pretend you travel to an unfamiliar country, you know only a few words of the language, and you’re lost and a little scared. Would you ask for help? Of course.

No one knows everything. No one is great at everything.

Productive people soldier on and hope effort will overcome a lack of knowledge or skill. And it does, but only to a point.

Highly productive people also ask for help. They know asking for help is a sign of strength — and the key to achieving more.

  1. They start…

At times we all lack motivation and self-discipline. At times we’re easily distracted. At times we all fear failure — and success.

Procrastination is a part of what makes people human; it’s not possible to totally overcome any of those shortcomings. Wanting to put off a difficult task is normal. Avoiding a challenge is normal.

But think about a time you put off a task, finally got started, and then once into it, thought, “I don’t know why I kept putting this off — it’s going really well. And it didn’t turn out to be nearly as hard as I imagined.”

(That’s no surprise; it’s always easier than we think.)

Highly productive people try not to think about the pain they will feel in the beginning; they focus on how good they will feel once they’re engaged and involved.

So they get started…

  1. …and they finish.

Unless there’s a really, really good reason not to finish — which, of course, there almost never is.